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how to write discussion in research paper

Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address and describe the generalizability of your results to other situations. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data [either within the text or as an appendix]. Engage the reader in thinking critically about issues based upon an evidence-based interpretation of findings; it is not governed strictly by objective reporting of information. It is what all of your hard-work of writing the hypothesis, collecting and designing the data, conducting the statistical analysis of graphs and preparing the summary sums up to. For a good structure and organization of your research’s discussion and conclusion, keep in mind these aspects: 1. Note that any significant or unanticipated finding is often because there was no prior research to indicate the finding could occur. How to write the results and discussion Michael P. Dosch CRNA MS June 2009 Results Be happy! You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results, usually in one paragraph. 6. Annual Review of Psychology 49 (February 1998): 259-287. The predicted Angle and Range values are compared with actual values obtained from real-life environment In most of the cases the predicted values are in the region of the actual measured range and Angle values. Your discussion section allows you to take a fresh perspective on your findings, so you can dig deep and provide new and original ideas from your research. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. How to write strengths and weaknesses essay How paper the do to a discussion part of research. It is observed that the predictor with MOM defuzzification performs better in terms of response time and less relative error. This part of the discussion should begin with a description of the unanticipated finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. The materials, patience among the website since it, in chennai. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper Publication Date: 22 Feb 2018 The conclusion is the last, yet not the easiest part of a research paper. The discussion section of a research paper has a sole purpose of explaining every single step from initiation of the research to the result. The purpose of a Results section is to present the key results of your research. Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings. Example: The authors are in the process of further optimizing the rulebase and improve the response time of the predictor. It is assumed that, the environment is observed through stereo vision technique. MacCoun, Robert J. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but the discussion does not simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly explain how your study advanced the reader's understanding of the research problem from where you left them at the end of your review of prior research. Many students rush when compiling this section. If a study that you cited does not support your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why your research findings differ from theirs. The response time of the predictor for all the objects should be acceptable for real-life applications. III. How to Write a Discussion Essay. The next big step is to write the discussion. The researcher has to; • Begin with explaining the objective of the research, followed by what inspired you as a researcher to study the subject. • The reader should be able to understand the key observations without being forced to go through the whole paper. This doesnt necessarily reflect the order in. If you feel compelled to speculate, do so in the form of describing possible implications or explaining possible impacts. If applicable, begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most significant or unanticipated finding first, then systematically review each finding. 7. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. It is important that everything in this last section is based off of the results of the data analysis. The purpose of the discussion is to review the study findings in light of the published literature and draw conclusions from the data. Systematically explain the underlying meaning of your findings and state why you believe they are significant. If there is prior research to indicate this, you need to explain why it was significant or unanticipated. 2. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Comparison and Relating: No one is ever the only person researching on a particular subject. Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. It is what all of your hard-work of writing the hypothesis, collecting and designing the data, conducting the statistical analysis of graphs and preparing the summary sums up to. Just a small amount of writing to go from this point. My birthplace essay. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. If your experiment confirmed your hypothesis, save the discussion about that for the discussion section. The relative error of 5-10% is acceptable for our system as the predicted fuzzy region and the fuzzy region of actual position remains the same. How to write a discussion on research paper rating 4-5 stars based on 124 reviews Stress research essay veteran college essay examples what is your dream job and why essay, plan dissertation 1ere guerre mondiale main body of argumentative essay , importance of sociological theory essay essay on friends happiness. The discussion section should have a detailed comparison to researches. Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand your discussion of the results in this way, while others don’t care what your opinion is beyond your effort to interpret the data in relation to the research problem. Before concluding the discussion, identify potential. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the, Azar, Beth. Annesley, Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.” Clinical Chemistry 56 (November 2010): 1671-1674. Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. Emphasizing the importance of following future directions can lead to new researches as well. Think of your discussion and conclusion section as an inverted pyramid: start from the general aspects of your research and then focus on the specifics. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources is usually found in the discussion section. How To Write A Scholarly Research Report - Pareonline Get Organized, Lists, Outlines, Notecards, etc Before starting to write the paper , take the time to think about and develop a list of points. The discussion section should relate your results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for your research. Annesley, Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.”, Most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based upon a logical synthesis of the findings, and, to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem under investigation'. The discussion section should relate your results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for your research. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper 8 Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper, 8 The When Writing The Discussion section. You may choose to conclude the discussion section by making suggestions for further research [this can be done in the overall conclusion of your paper]. Analyzing vs. Summarizing. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to … If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each of them in the order they appeared as you gathered or analyzed the data. Department of English Writing Guide. Don’t just repeat all the data you have already reported – aim for a clear statement of the overall result that directly answers your main research question. This should be no more than one paragraph. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. Start this chapter by reiterating your research problem and concisely summarizing your major findings. Discussing the Findings: Coming to the major part of the findings, the section should interpret the key observations, the analysis of charts and the analysis of tables. Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. Lund Research Ltd., 2012; Summary: Using it Wisely. Example : Figure 5 in the results section represent the average relative error observed for the prediction algorithm for various test cases using Min Max, MOM and COA defuzzification techniques. Figure 6. illustrates some of the results obtained for path prediction using MOM defuzzification. How to define the Scope of your Research . How to write Discussion/Analysis section of a Research Paper, http://www.researchvoyage.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/whatsapp-image-2019-02-04-at-10.07.09-am.jpeg, How to write Results Section of your Research Paper, Art of writing Conclusion to your Research Paper. Annesley Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.”, Avoid the use of jargon or undefined technical language, Follow a logical stream of thought; in general, interpret and discuss the significance of your findings in the same sequence you described them in your results section [a notable exception is to begin by highlighting an unexpected result or finding in order to grab the reader's attention], Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works or prior studies in the past tense, If needed, use subheadings to help organize your discussion or to categorize your interpretations into themes. University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. For each test case average response time is also calculated to find its suitability to real life environment. The Discussion section represents the analysis of your research paper. Highlight any unexpected and/or exciting results Based on the analysis of results, it has been found that Mean Of Maximum defuzzification technique has lower response time and better accuracy. Example: The object motion prediction is done by incorporating human experience in the form of fuzzy inference rules. Begin by discussing the research question and talking about whether it was answered in the research paper based on the results. It should present the facts that relates the research to studies done on the same subject. The results and discussion sections are one of the challenging sections to write. Step 19: Write Discussion and Conclusion The second to last step in conducting a research study is to interpret the findings in the Discussion section, draw conclusions, and make recommendations. If there is prior research to indicate this, you need to explain why it was significant or unanticipated. If you need to know the requirements for a speci… "Discussing Your Findings." Alternative Explanations: Almost every time, it has been noticed that analysis of charts and graphs show the results that tend to have more than one explanation. You should frame your suggestions by linking the need for further research to the limitations of your study [e.g., in future studies, the survey instrument should include more questions that ask..."] or linking to critical issues revealed from the data that were not considered initially in your research. Use the same terms, academic writing style that was used throughout your research paper 3. Start by taking a side, researching your topic, and outlining your essay It must summarize the whole paper and explain its main purpose. The discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study. While rarely is one manuscript affected by all of these errors, the following are the most common areas in need of improvement. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretation of those results and their significance in relation to the research problem, not the data itself. So, it is always better to select something that you really American Psychological Association, Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper, Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion Section, Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. How To Write Discussion Section In Medical Research Paper Latest posts can be the article writing short articles, coaching classes. University of Florida; Yellin, Linda L. A Sociology Writer's Guide. Proposed predictor is more flexible, simple to implement and deals with noisy and uncertain data of real life situations. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. Join now The first part of this post briefly described what to include in the introduction and materials and methods sections of a typical research paper written in the IMRaD format (Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, and Discussion). For example, if the purpose of your research was to measure the impact of foreign aid on increasing access to education among the poor in Bangladesh, it would not be appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim or if analysis of other countries was not a part of your original research design. Consider the likelihood that no one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. My passion for basketball essay to a paper How write discussion for research a pdf student should not work part time job essay. "The Anatomy of an Article: The Discussion Section: "How Does the Article I Read Today Change What I Will Recommend to my Patients Tomorrow?” The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 74 (June 2013): 1599-1602; Research Limitations & Future Research. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; The Lab Report. "Discussing Your Findings." The navigation environment is presented in the form of Prediction graph where x axis represents the Range parameter and the y axis represents the Angle parameter. Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. 2. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings, Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. But you can send us an email and we'll get back to you, asap. The discussion should have this major factors listed before beginning to describe about how the research was conceived and the sequence of developments that took place. Otherwise, follow the general order you reported the findings in the results section. Acknowledgements of the Limitations: If the research is on a subject that might have legal limitations or restrictions that might have caused certain imperfections, it should be acknowledged by the researcher before the work is criticized by others later. 5. It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to discover and not to prove. As noted, the exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed by a discussion of the remaining findings. George Mason University; Discussion. The results and discussion are (relatively) cut and dried. The sequence of this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. The discussion section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because this is where you: Annesley Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.” Clinical Chemistry 56 (November 2010): 1671-1674; Bitchener, John and Helen Basturkmen. The results section should simply be hard facts written in the passive voice. Suggest Future Directions: The section must have suggestions for researches that should be done to unanswered questions. The Results section of a scientific research paper represents the core findings of a study derived from the methods applied to gather and analyze information 1 Write a brief paragraph Write a brief paragraph which summarizes the results of your experiment or study. It is important to plan this section carefully as it may contain a large amount of scientific data that needs to be presented in a clear and concise fashion. 2 Write a paragraph It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! You have already written the results for your paper and formatted and put together the figures, too. Briefly reiterate the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. This would demonstrate to the reader that you have inadequately examined and interpreted the data. Further improvements in relative error parameter optimization of Min Max method may lead to highly efficient MinMax Predictor . San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008. In the proposed experiment the Fuzzy logic addresses this problem as it takes uncertain data, processes it and obtains certain and finite data. Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense [present] that you used when describing the research problem in your introduction. Present the underlying meaning of your research, note possible implications in other areas of study, and explore possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research; Highlight the importance of your study and how it can contribute to understanding the research problem within the field of study. This is especially important when describing the discovery of significant or unanticipated findings. Start this chapter by reiterating your problem statement and research questions and concisely summarising your major findings. State how the findings from your study revealed and helped fill gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed or adequately described; and. No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. In the results section of your paper, you need to list what you have discovered. The first paragraph should have the findings mentioned, which is expected to be synoptic, naming and briefly describing the analysis of results. Here the hypotheses as well as the research questions established in the introductory material are A few historical references may be helpful for perspective, but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results or used to link to similar studies. If you want to write a nice discussion paper, you should express different ideas and opinions on the given topic and provide a discussion based on those ideas and opinions. The Relevance of the Research: The purpose of every research is to implement the results for the positive development of the relevant subject. One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. When writing a discussion for a lab report, your first step is to double-check the guidelines for the outline of your document. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings, It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to. This can be followed by any recommendations for further research. When editing a manuscript, the section that is typically the most problematic is the discussion. A discussion essay, also known as an argumentative essay, is one where you take a position on an issue. Do not use overly technical language or include specifics in this section. "Biases in the Interpretation and Use of Research Results. • Explain the meaning of the findings, as every reader might not understand the analysis of graphs and charts as easily as                people who are in the same field as you. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. How to write a conclusion for a research paper: simple hints One of the best ways to understand the task and master all of its peculiarities is talking to experts and tutors. How to write an effective research paper getting ready with data first draft structure of a scientific paper selecting a journal submission. Example: Robot navigation system has to handle large amount of uncertain data in real life environment. Interpretation is a subjective exercise. This should be no more than one paragraph. This blog discusses research paper example to help you write better. Note how the authors link what they did in their paper with "other research that should have been done or that *somebody* should be doing". Provides the context of your work Creates your research space, defines gap in knowledge States your focus i.e., hypothesis, question Providesjustificationfor your work Why the question is important Why your work can answer it The context, focus, and justification in the introduction…. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. "How to Write an Effective Discussion." Research paper requires detailed examination of the topic according to a specific outline. This doesnt necessarily reflect the order in. Discussion of how to understand and write different sections of a scientific paper. Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of their significance. This is is usually the hardest section to write. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address and describe the generalizability of your results to other situations. American Psychological Association gradPSYCH Magazine (January 2006). VI. Here's how you should write this section: 1. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. “Perceptions of the Difficulties of Postgraduate L2 Thesis Students Writing the Discussion Section.” Journal of English for Academic Purposes 5 (January 2006): 4-18; Kretchmer, Paul. Example: On critical observation of the graphs  in environments  where number of objects are less and response time is critical Min-Max method can be used as its response time is better as compared to COA and MOM methods. Azar, Beth. Therefore, it is extremely important that a researcher understands how to write the discussion section of a research paper. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that the Fuzzy predictor with MOM defuzzification has less relative error and quick response time as compared to other prediction  techniques. Essay in indian culture example of an health promotion essay: essay on oil Note that any significant or unanticipated finding is often because there was no prior research to indicate the finding could occur. We asked our writers about the best tips, which may help in completing a research paper conclusion. A private safe space for researchers around the world to be themselves, learn from and motivate each other, and have some fun! In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. Discussions of how to write Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Data, and Discussion. The Discussion section of a quantitative paper is where you interpret your research results and discuss their implications. Example : Table 2 compares some of the well known prediction techniques with our fuzzy predictor with MOM defuzzification for response time, relative error and Environmental constraints. It is critically important that this is clearly put out to the readers. Overall, that's how I distinguish Discussion from Results (linkage to broader works Here are the major elements to keep in mind while writing the discussion section; 1. The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated and to explain any new understanding or insights that emerged as a result of your study of the problem. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. With this in mind, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you have gathered. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, this is where you can address other questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or highlight previously hidden questions that were revealed as a result of conducting your research. Eager to finish the paper, they end up missing on some results of their Papers usually end with a concluding section, often called the “Discussion.” The Discussion is your opportunity to evaluate and interpret the results of your study or paper, draw inferences and conclusions from it, and communicate its contributions to science and/or society. These should be suggested in the beginning to avoid questions being asked by critics. Let’s accept this: Writing a paper is daunting, and sometimes the most difficult and thought-provoking part is writing the ‘discussion’ section. Department of Biology. University of Toronto; Sauaia, A. et al. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies, No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section is one of the most tedious and most extended parts you write in a research paper. MacCoun, Robert J. II. The Writing Center. Be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. However, you should ask your teacher to know what formatting style is good, for example, specific universities use APA style, but there are also many other styles popular in other universities. Don’t just repeat all the data you have already reported – aim for a clear statement of the overall result that directly answers your main research question. Make Suggestions for Further Research. 2. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to … After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think critically about the results [“why didn't I think of that?”]. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009. IV. In addition, the discussion should be used to support the implications of the authors findings and convincingly showcase the novelty of the study. It lets you understand the right place for this section in your paper and how big it should be. The discussion section of a research paper has a sole purpose of explaining every single step from initiation of the research to the result. Top 05 Questions a Researcher May face in his PhD Defence. … set the direction you’ll take in the discussion. There are no specific requirements for the discussion formatting.

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